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All types of English Pronouns
All types of English Pronouns

In this article we're going to learn the following:
  • REPLACING NOUNS WITH PRONOUNS
    Subject pronoun and Object pronoun

  •  Demonstrative Pronouns

  • Possessive pronouns

  • Possessive determiners

  • Typical possessive pronoun errors 

  • Interrogative pronouns ( what, which, who, whom, and whose).

  • Joining clauses with relative pronouns

  • Reflexive pronouns

  • reflexive pronouns for the same subject and object.

  • Reflexive pronouns using by

  • Examples of Independent Clauses 

  • Examples of dependent Clauses 

  • Linking a dependent clause to a sentence(independent clause) with relative pronouns



First, before talking about pronouns, we need to use why we use pronouns.
 

REPLACING NOUNS WITH PRONOUNS

To avoid the frequent use of the same noun, pronouns can  be used instead.
Using personal pronouns
Personal pronouns take the place of a noun. They are identified
as 1st, 2nd and 3rd persons. They can be used as both subject and object. Look at the following table: 

Subject and object pronouns


Singular
Plural
Subject
Object
Subject
Object
1st person
I
me
we
Us
2nd person
you
you
you
you
3rd person
He,she
Him,her
they
them
it
it

English pronouns
English pronouns


possessive  Pronouns

We use pronouns to refer to possession and ‘belonging’. There are two types: possessive pronouns and possessive determiners. We use possessive determiners before a noun. We use possessive pronouns in place of a noun:

possessive  Pronouns 

personal pronoun
possessive determiner
possessive pronoun
I
my
mine
you (singular and plural)
your
yours
he
his
his
she
her
hers
it
its
its*
we
our
ours
they
their
theirs
one
one’s
one’s*

Note:
*We avoid using its and one’s as possessive pronouns except when we use them with own:
The house seemed asleep yet, as I have said, it had a life of its own.
One doesn’t like to spend too much time on one’s own.

possessive determiner

 
possessive determiner


Typical possessive pronoun errors


We don’t use ’s after possessive pronouns:
Are those gloves hers?
Not: Are those gloves her’s?
’s is not used with the possessive pronoun its. It’s means ‘it is’:
The team is proud of its ability to perform consistently well.
Not: … proud of it’s ability …
We don’t use another determiner with a possessive determiner:
I’m going to get my hair cut this afternoon.
Not: … get the my hair cut …

We don’t use possessive determiners on their own. They are always at the beginning of noun phrases:
That’s not my book. It’s yours. (or It’s your book.)
Not: It’s your.
We don’t use possessive pronouns before nouns:
Lots of our friends were at the party.
Not: Lots of ours friends …

Interrogative pronouns

 
The five interrogative pronouns are what, which, who, whom, and whose.

What – Used to ask questions about objects. Examples:
What do you want for dinner?
I wonder what we’re doing tomorrow.
What is your friend’s name?
What time are we supposed to be there?

                        Which


Which – Used to ask questions about people or objects. Examples:
Which color do you prefer?
Which of these ladies is your mother?
She asked which train to take.
Which seat would you like?

        Who


Who – Used to ask questions about people(subject). Examples:
Who is that?
Who was driving the car?
I’m wondering who will be at the party.
Who is going to take out the trash?

                                                     Whom


Whom –used instead of "who" as the object of a verb or preposition, it is used to ask questions about people. Examples:
Whom did you speak to?
Whom do you prefer to vote for?
You should ask whom to call.
Whom do you live with?

            Whose


Whose – Used to ask questions about people or objects, always related to possession. Examples:
Whose sweater is this?
Whose parents are those?
I wonder whose dog knocked our garbage can over.
Whose phone is that?


Dependent clause, independent clause (sentence), or  a phrase

A clause is a group of words that includes a subject and a verb.
A clause is two types either dependent (meaning is not complete or independent (meaning is complete)
A sentence is an independent clause, and usually ends with a period.
A phrase, which does not contain a subject and a verb (e.g., in the afternoon, drinking from the bowl).


Examples of Independent Clauses (sentences)


Tara ate a cheese roll .

My cousin failed his driving test six times.

Examples of dependent Clauses 

 

after she watched the news,…
Even though his mother was a driving instructor,…


Linking  a dependent clause to a sentence(independent clause) with relative pronouns



Joining clauses with relative pronouns


Relative pronouns have a similar function to conjunctions.
They link dependent clauses to main clauses and usually
follow a noun. They are the same words as the interrogative pronouns 

Reflexive pronouns


Reflexive pronouns end in –self    or -selves. They refer back to the subject forms of personal pronouns (underlined in the example below):
We didn’t decorate it ourselves. Someone else did it for us.

subject pronoun
reflexive pronoun
I
myself
you (singular)
yourself
he
himself
she
herself
it
itself
one
oneself
we
ourselves
you (plural)
yourselves
they
themselves

Reflexive pronouns for same subject and object

We often use reflexive pronouns when the subject and the object of the verb refer to the same person or thing:
He cut himself on the broken glass.
She made herself a cup of tea and sat down in front of the television.
Parents often blame themselves for the way their children behave

We use a reflexive pronoun to make it clear who or what is being referred to.
  


Compare
Agnes looked at herself in the mirror.

The subject and the object are the same.


Agnes looked at her in the mirror. 

  The subject and the object are different. Agnes is looking at someone else in the mirror.

Reflexive pronouns + by meaning alone

We often use reflexive pronouns with by to mean ‘alone’ or ‘without any help’:
Why don’t you go by yourself?
The children made the entire meal by themselves.


  

   


The five interrogative pronouns are what, which, who, whom, and whose.

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